This paper is focused on the problem of unlawful initiation of enforced debt collection proceedings. In polish legal reality, such situation might occur when despite satisfaction of claim by debtor, creditor is initiating proceedings by filing a motion to bailiff. This may happen not only when debtor itself has satisfied claim, but also when other person has already done it (for example when one of joint and several debtors has fulfilled obligation). Such action taken by the creditor creates not only a creditor’s civil liability but also should be perceived as a criminal offence. It is a unusual type of so-called ‘court fraud’. The victim of deception is not the debtor itself (which wealth may be endangered), but bailiff, who is conducting enforced debt collection. Motion, which is initiates of debt collection proceedings must be perceived as reassurance by the creditor that his claim has not been satisfied yet.